For the offshore oil and gas industry, about 75% of the water produced is treated and then discharged into the ocean, with the rest being re-injected.
Moving onshore, roughly 90% of this water is re-injected, with the rest being treated and re-used or discharged.
With the rapid development of shale oil and gas, and the demand for water for hydraulic fracturing, there is an increasing emphasis on flowback and produced water re-use.
The measurement of oil in produced water is vitally important, for both regulatory compliance monitoring and data collection for the development of future government regulations and operators’ corporate environmental policy.
It is also important for production operations in terms of process optimisation, and water quality monitoring for produced water reinjection operations. To calculate the total amount of oil that is discharged via produced water, the volume of that water must also be measured accurately.
While direct measurement using flow meters such as electrical-magnetic and ultrasonic-based devices provides accurate discharge volumes, other
methods such using well test...
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